The world of IoT consists of a huge number of devices and products that vary in size and complexity as well as in design and technology. A typical IoT system contains many “constraint devices” with very primitive Operating Systems (OS) and little protection.


Devices are constantly talking to each other with data freely flowing between them. Data often flows without strict security protocols and most times is unencrypted, allowing easy interception and exploitation by attackers.


Data leakage can easily occur in the world of IoT. When systems talk to each other they will likely have different security levels, where the most robust system can easily exploit the weaker. That in turn could potentially allow access to the more secure device because attackers in the world of IoT always look for the weakest link.

14 Billion

IoT Devices Worldwide by 2025. A $14.4 Trillion IoT market by 2022.


Unfortunately, security is not always a top priority for manufacturers who rush their products to market as quickly as possible. In many cases, devices are configured only once and never receive patches or security updates due to power or cost considerations.

According to an IDC forecast, it is predicted that by 2025 there will be as many as 41.6 billion connected IoT devices. Most of the embedded firmware running on these devices is insecure and highly vulnerable, meaning that many critical systems and data all around the world will be put at risk.

Commonly used attack methods

Programming languages

The C programming language is considered to be the key programming language for embedded IoT devices and is well known for being error prone for memory corruption. By conforming to standards such as CERT for C/C++, you can take advantage of a global set of rules and best practices to avoid coding errors or defects.

Hard coded passwords

It is not uncommon for IoT manufacturers to use hard coded passwords in their firmware. This is usually done for ease of design and testing during development. Often their removal is overlooked by the time the product hits the market. The credentials are often default ones such as using “admin” as the username and/or passwords. Weak credentials and login details leave nearly all IoT devices vulnerable to password hacking and brute-force attacks in particular.

Data Encryption

Data Encryption - Different types of data, including sensitive data, are constantly being gathered, transmitted, stored and processed by organizations using IoT devices including mobile phones, smart TVs, smart meters, cameras and more. With a lack of unified standards in the IoT industry, clear encryption protocols for data at rest or in transit are often ignored.

Xcalibyte’s Solutions

IoT Programming Languages

Xcalscan has high levels of conformance with CERT C/ C++ to help developers identify vulnerabilities early in the SDLC.

Identify Embedded Credentials

Xcalscan analyzes software to identify the use of embedded credentials and provides a clear path to where they exist so they can be remediated.

Data Flow Analysis

Xcalscan analyses software through data flows and considers the encryption states of information. Developers can scan to detect where these concerns have not been addressed in their software so that they can be remediated.

Xcalibyte works with many different IoT manufacturers including chip makers, self-driving vehicle companies and home automation companies. All need to be fast to market, which is critically important in this growing industry. They all recognize the need to ensure their products are secured from malicious attacks, including home invasion.


HISENSE – Smart Home Appliances

Juhaolian is a subsidiary of Hisense, known for smart home appliances, electronic equipment and intelligent information systems. Juhaolian is at the heart of Hisense's smart home solutions by providing communication technologies between devices and the cloud.

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UISEE – Autonomous Vehicles

UISEE focuses on creating future-oriented mobility and logistics solutions. Using AI, they help reshape how people live in an eco-friendly urban lifestyle through utility, safety and inclusive experiences.

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HORIZON – AI Processors

Horizon provides customized solutions in the field of intelligent driving. With their proprietary AI processor and computing platform, Horizon offers external environment perception, in-vehicle multi-modal interaction and high-precision map modeling.

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